Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal (SSSTJ)

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   SSSTJ - Vol.4 No.1, January 2017
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Confidence Interval for the Ratio of Bivariate Normal Means with a Known Coefficient of Variation
Wararit Panichkitkosolkul
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Abstract An approximate confidence interval for the ratio of bivariate normal means with a known coefficient of variation is proposed in this paper. This application has the area of bioassay and bioequivalence when a scientist knows the coefficient of variation of a control group. The proposed confidence interval is based on the approximated expectation and variance of the estimator by the Taylor series expansion. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence interval with the existing confidence interval. The results showed that the simulation is considered confidence interval and the estimated coverage probabilities close to the nominal confidence level for large sample sizes. The estimated coverage probabilities of the existing confidence interval are over estimated for all situations. In addition, the expected lengths of the proposed confidence interval are shorter than those of the existing confidence interval in all circumstances. When the sample size increases, the expected length become shorter. Therefore, our confidence interval presented in this paper performs well in terms of estimated coverage probability and the expected length in considering the simulation results. A comparison of the confidence intervals is also illustrated using an empirical application. Keywords Interval estimation, Central tendency, Standardized measure of dispersion, Coverage probability, Expected length
First report of leaf spot disease caused by Polyrostrata indica on Aloe vera from Madhya Pradesh, India
Shubhi Avasthi, Ajay Kumar Gautam, Rekha Bhadauria
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Abstract A leaf spot disease was observed on Aloe vera plants growing in nurseries and botanical gardens of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. Symptoms were noticed on the tips and the middle part of the leaves in the form of small, circular, dark brown necrotic spots, with an average diameter of 0.6-1.4×0.5- 0.9 cm. Dark brown colonies with granular appearance was consistently isolated from the infected tissue on PDA. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate and rod shaped measuring up to 12.5-20×7.5- 15 µm. Based on the morphological and cultural characteristics, fungus was identified as Polyrostrata indica Prameela and Nita Mathur. Pathogenicity test conducted on healthy Aloe leaves showed typical leaf spot symptoms after fourteen day of infestation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pathogen on A. vera in India. Keywords Aloe vera, Leaf spot, Polyrostrata indica, Disease, India
   SSSTJ - Vol.3 No.2, July 2016
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Study on air pollution trends (2010-2015) due to fireworks during Diwali festival in Delhi, India
Abhinav Pandey, Rajeev Kumar Mishra, Ankita Shukla
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Abstract The burning of massive amount of fire crackers on the evening(s) of a nation-wide celebrated festival called ‘Diwali’ in India, gives rise to a remarkably high concentration of criteria air pollutants and it is of utmost importance to investigate the impact of such high loads originated during a relatively shorter time span in a mega-city like Delhi where the situation of ambient air quality has already been alarming almost through-out the year. In view of the same, the present study analyzes available concentration data during this festival’s night for five criteria pollutants namely PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO along with NH3 at six key locations of Delhi. Following the analysis, PM10 concentration in Anand Vihar during nighttime of Diwali was reported to be ~8 times higher than the 24-hr values prescribed by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). On the other hand, the same at IGI airport was recorded lowest even though about 3.5 times that of the guiding standard. PM2.5 concentrations were reported as highest and lowest at R.K. Puram and Civil lines respectively, in both the cases quite exceeding the comparable standard values. Interestingly, remaining criteria pollutants, namely, SO2 NO2 and CO along with NH3 measured in 2015 showed no values in excess of corresponding 24-hrs guidelines, thereby reporting a better scenario compared to previous years. Further, the extensive use of firecrackers during Diwali festival leads to substantial increase in air pollutants necessitating special measures to control. Keywords Fireworks; Diwali; Aerosols; Criteria pollutants; NAAQS
Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique
Somchit Boonthiem, Supawan Khotama, Supap Sakha, Watcharin Klongdee
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Abstract In this paper, we propose an improvement of the minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform) technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PH-transform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged. Keywords Minimum K-S estimator, PH-transform technique
Maximizing the Retention Level for Proportional Reinsurance under a-regulation of the Finite-Time Surplus Process with Equalized Interarrival Times
Sukanya Somprom, Supawan Khotama, Watcharin Klongdee
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Abstract The research focuses on an insurance model controlled by proportional reinsurance in the finite-time surplus process with an equalized interatrial time. We prove the existence of the maximal retention level for independent and identically distributed claim processes under α-regulation, i.e., a model where the insurance company has to manage the probability of insolvency to be at most α. In addition, we illustrate the maximal retention level for exponential claims by applying the bisection technique. Keywords Probability of insolvency, Proportional reinsurance, Maximal retention level
Latent fingerprints on different type of screen protective films
Yuttana Sudjaroen, Titaree Thongthienchai
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Abstract The purpose of this research was to study the quality of latent fingerprint on different types of screen protective films including screen protector, matte screen protector, anti-fingerprint clear screen protector and anti-fingerprint matte screen protector by using black powder method in developing latent fingerprints. The fingerprints were performed by 10 volunteers whose fingers (right index, right thumb, left index and left thumb) were stubbing at different types of screen protective films and subsequently latent fingerprints were developed by brushing with black powder. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) counted the numbers of minutiae points from 320 latent fingerprints. Anti-fingerprint matte screen protective film produced the best quality of latent fingerprint with an average minutiae point 72.65, followed by matte screen protective film, clear screen protective film and anti-fingerprint clear screen protective film with an average minutiae point of 155.2, 135.0 and 72.65 respectively. The quality of latent fingerprints developed between a clear and a matte surface of screen protective films showed a significant difference (sig > 0.05), whereas the coat and the non-coat with anti-fingerprint chemical revealed a non-significant difference (sig < 0.05) in their number of minutiae points. Keywords Screen protective film, Latent fingerprints, Black powder method, Anti-fingerprint coating
   SSSTJ - Vol.3 No.1, January 2016
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An Extended Mixture Inverse Gaussian Distribution
Chookait Pudprommarat
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Abstract This paper proposes an extend mixture inverse Gaussian (EMIG) distribution which is mixed between the inverse Gaussian distribution and the length biased inverse Gaussian (LBIG) distribution. The Birnbaum-Saunders (BS) distribution and LBIG distribution are presented as special cases of the EMIG distribution. The properties of this distribution are discussed which include the shapes of the probability density functions, distribution functions survival functions and hazard rate functions, mean and variance. The EMIG has two parameters and it is shown that maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) can be obtained by solving equation. An application of the model to a real data set is analyzed using the new distribution, which shows that the EMIG distribution can be used quite effectively in analyzing real data by using Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) statistics and goodness of fit tests. Keywords Mixture Inverse Gaussian Distribution, Length Biased Inverse Gaussian Distribution, Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution
Effect of Carboxyl-Terminal Truncation on the Catalytic Performance of D - Phenylglycine Aminotransferase
Aiya Chantarasiri, Rachael Patterson, Vithaya Meevootisom, Suthep Wiyakrutta
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Abstract The D-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT) is a novel enzyme that can be used to synthesize precursors of antibiotics. This research addressed the function of the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) of D-PhgAT. Its C-terminal amino acid sequence was compared to other related proteins using bioinformatics tools. The analyzed amino acid sequence was used to produce a genetically modified enzyme having a truncation of the 10 amino acid residues at the C-terminal region. The truncated D-PhgAT was purified and analyzed for catalytic performance. The results revealed that the truncated enzyme had better catalytic performance than the full-length enzyme by 37.49%. This research is a preliminary study for improving the enzymatic performance of D-PhgAT by structure-guided engineering and can be applied in the development of other enzymes. Keywords D-phenylglycine aminotransferase; carboxyl-terminus; catalytic performance; bioinformatics tools
Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar
Kyu Kyu Sein, Thida Myint
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Abstract This paper presents the use of flood frequency analysis integrating with 1D Hydraulic model (HEC- RAS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) to prepare flood hazard maps of different return periods in Ayeyarwady River at Mandalay City in Myanmar. Gumbel’s distribution was used to calculate the flood peak of different return periods, namely, 10 years, 20 years, 50 years, and 100 years. The flood peak from frequency analysis were input into HEC-RAS model to find the corresponding flood level and extents in the study area. The model results were used in integrating with ArcGIS to generate flood plain maps. Flood depths and extents have been identified through flood plain maps. Analysis of 100 years return period flood plain map indicated that 157.88 km2 with the percentage of 17.54% is likely to be inundated. The predicted flood depth ranges varies from greater than 0 to 24 m in the flood plains and on the river. The range between 3 to 5 m were identified in the urban area of Chanayetharzan, Patheingyi, and Amarapua Townships. The highest inundated area was 85 km2 in the Amarapura Township. Keywords Flood Frequency; HEC-RAS; Flood Hazard; Return Period; GIS
Guidelines for Vehicles Robbery Prevention using Remote Blocking Signals
Narong Sangwaranatee and Teerat Klangkanasub
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Abstract In this project, We refer from the case of signal blocking to commit the remote vehicle crime in the venerable place for crime happen, for example parking lot in public area, department store and sideway street. From experiment of signal blocking by using another remote control; for signal wiretap, in over 5 meters, 10 meters and 15 meters of areas. We found that the Vehicle Brand A Model No. 1 can be blocked by 83.33 percent, while Brand A Model No. 2 can be blocked by 83.33 percent. At the same way, Vehicle Brand B Model No.1 can be blocked by 40 percent, While Brand B Model No.2 can be blocked by 60 percent. Moreover, Vehicle Brand C Model No. 1 can be blocked by 83.33 percent, while Brand C Model No. 2 can be blocked by 83.33 percent. meanwhile, the remote control for general vehicle are used radio waves in period of 315 MHz and 433 MHz of frequency, so the criminal will using colliding waves, from radio wave frequency that we refer to, for jamming and make opportunity for robber the car. Keywords Vehicles Robbery Prevention, Remote Blocking Signals
   SSSTJ - Vol.2 No.2, July 2015
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Mapping Land Cover Dynamics in Nakhon Nayok Province of Thailand
Phan Kieu Diem, Asamaporn Sitthi, Uday Pimple, Sukan Pungkul
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Abstract The spatial distribution of land cover information and its changes is very valuable for any planning, management and monitoring at local as well as regional scale. In this paper, multi-temporal Landsat TM/ OLI data were used to classify the land cover of the Nakhon Nayok province in Thailand over the period 2004-2015. The supervised classification maximum likelihood method was implemented to assign probability to land the cover classes considered. The random sampling point method was used for field survey and accuracy assessment. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient in 2015 were found to be 72% and 0.6626 respectively. The results also indicated that important changes concerned mainly urban (308.46 %), water (-50.46%), and agricultural (-12.14%) areas, and least changes forest areas (3.17%). These results also highlighted that over the last 10 years, urban areas have been characterized by the highest expansion, mainly from the conversion of agricultural land. Keywords Remote Sensing, Landsat, Land cover dynamics, change detection
Electricity and Water Supply Consumption and Green House Gas Emission at the Office of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Ronbanchob Apiratikul
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Abstract This work was a data collection of electricity and water supply consumption of the Dean’s Office of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand. The greenhouse gas emissions from electricity and water supply consumptions were calculated using the up-to-date emission factor from the Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (TGO) database. In average, the office consumes 1.045 m3/d and 87.9 kWh/d of water and electricity, respectively. This is equal to 68.5 Liter per person (11.25 L/m2) and 4.1 kWh per person (0.6788 kWh /m2) for the daily water supply and electricity consumptions, respectively. The total daily greenhouse gas emission from both electricity and water supply consumption is 59.01 kg-CO2 eq. which is mainly came from the electricity consumption (≈ 98%). The average emission based on people and area are 2.566 kg-CO2 eq per person and 0.422 kg-CO2/m2, respectively. Keywords Resources management, Electricity, Water supply, Green House Gases Emission
The Health Effects of Computer Use on Personnel at the Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Rujijan Vichivanives, Wanwimon Mekwimon
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Abstract This survey research aimed to find the health effects of computer use on Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University’s personnel. A total of 312 samples were selected out of 1401 population by simple random method. Inferential statistics were used throughout the hypothesis testing and data analysis (percentage, mean and standard deviation). The correlation between risk factors and computer-used behavior were calculated by Pearson correlation and Creamer’s V coefficient (95% CI). The results indicated that the samples spend 6-10 hours of the workday on the computer. In order to create a good working environment, the organization has provided good computing facilities. The overview of computer-used behavior suggests that the personnel have regular good practice, i.e. 5 - 6 times per week. The research result found that the most of personnel have a regular eyestrain, eye fatigue, sore eyes and irritation symptoms at least 5-6 times per week. In addition, the personnel have regular neck, shoulder, back, waist and wrist pain symptoms at least 3-4 times per week. The result indicated that the computer user’s behavior and user’s health status relate to each other, and are in the same way. In conclusion, the academic staff requires the basic computer usage knowledge in order to avoid future health problems. Keywords Health Effects, Health Disorder, Computer-used behavior, Office Syndrome, Computer Syndrome.
Assessment of Human’s Attitude Towards Natural Resource Conservation in Protected Area in Thailand
Ananya Popradit, Atsushi Ishida, Takehiko Murayama, Thares Srisatit, Tatsanawalai Utarasakul, Somboon Kiratiprayoon, Roj Khun Anake and Somkid Outtaranakorn
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Abstract Attitude of residing people towards a protected forest area was evaluated for sustainable use of natural resources and forest conservation in the Phu Kao–PhuPhan Kham National Park in Thailand. Their economic and social conditions were assessed in three villages of Phukao, NongBua Lamphu Province. Data were collected from 348 households (66.5%) heads or the representatives in the villages with the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (i) general economic and social information (ii) social grouping and participation and (iii) attitude toward participation in conserving natural resources and tourism management in this area. To evaluate their attitude, the collected data were divided into four categories: (i) level 4 equilibrium/nature (ii) level 3 warning (iii) level 2 risk (iv) level 1 crisis for forest conservation in the protected area. Overall, their attitude towards natural resource conservation, the social grouping and the community participation was very low. However, the attitude towards ecotourism is very high. We suggest that forest conservation will be maintained by more progress of ecotourism in this area. Keywords Human Altitude, Natural Resources, Sustainable Management, National park, conservation
Improving existing landslide hazard zonation map in KMC area, Sri Lanka
Oshadee Lasitha Potuhera and Vithanage Primali Anuruddhika Weerasinghe
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Abstract In Sri Lanka, presently used landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) map which was developed by National Building and Research Organization (NBRO) is based entirely on geological, geomorphological and hydrological factors. As development expands into unstable hill slope areas under the pressures of increasing population and urbanization, human activities such as deforestation or excavation of slopes for road cuts and building sites, etc., have become important triggers for landslide occurrence. The present study was undertaken in highly urbanized Kandy Municipal Council (KMC) area in Sri Lanka. Main objective of the study was to validate the existing LHZ map with current active landslides and the improvement of the LHZ map for further use for management purposes. Validation of the existing LHZ map shows lowest percentage of landslide occurrence in the landslides most likely to occur zone and highest in the landslides are to be expected zone. To evaluate this situation building density and transport lines were used. The relationship between building density and landslide occurrence was 97.1% and the relationship between distance from transport lines and landslide occurrence was 88.3% till 50 m. An improved LHZ map was developed including the effect of building density and distance from transport lines using frequency ratio method and improved LHZ map has an accuracy of 98.5%. Keywords Buildings, Hazards, Map, Landslide, Roads
   SSSTJ - Vol.2 No.1, January 2015
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The Relationship between Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere Measured by the Sodium Arsenite Method and the Chemiluminescence Method
Sivapan Choo-in and Rajeev K. Mishra
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Abstract The relationship between the nitrogen dioxide concentration measured by the Sodium Arsenite method and the Chemiluminescence method, aimed at developing a device for measuring nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere by means of the Sodium Arsenite method and studying the correlation between the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere which was measured by Sodium Arsenite method and the Chemiluminescense method done by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand. In this research sampling collection of nitrogen dioxide concentration in various conditions by the Sodium Arsenite method was compared with that by the Chemiluminescence method done by the pollution control Department at the Air Quality Measurement Station at the Din Dang district, Bangkok. It was done by one-hour average value totaling of thirty data. The research result found that the sampling collection with the flowing rate of 160 ml/min and the absorption reagent with mixture of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide and 0.015 M sodium arsenite had the highest relationship to the measurement result done by the Pollution Control Department at a statistical significance level of 0.05 with the value of correlation coefficient at 0.658 which had a high relation. Keywords Air pollution sampling, Chemiluminescense, Nitrogen dioxide, Sodium arsenite
Study of the Electric Energy Consumption of the Science Center Building
Orrawan Rewthong, Sansanee Sansiribhan, Narun Luewarasirikul, Siwimol Chuarung and Busarin Eamthanakul
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Abstract This research aimed to study the status of energy consumption in terms of electric energy consumption and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the Science Center Building, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. It was found the electric energy consumption in 2012 was 77,818 kWh. The specific energy consumption was 27.91 MJ/m2. It needed to have an energy conservation measure for the electric system for short-term measures. For the longterm, the electric system installation was regularly improved and maintained. Keywords Electric energy consumption, specific energy consumption.
Endophytic Xylariaceae from Thai Plants
Anthony J S Whalley, Nuttika Suwannasai, Nutthaporn Ruchikachorn, Ek Sangvichien and Prakitsin Sihanonth
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Abstract Endophytic fungi are present in all plant species investigated, and members of the Xylariaceae are especially common in tropical plants. There is major interest in endophytic fungi, because of their excellent track record concerning the production of novel and often bioactive compounds including the anti-cancer drugs taxol and taxane. Studies in Thailand on endophytes over the past 20 years confirm the high presence of the Xylariaceae in many different Thai plants. Species of Xylaria stand out as the most frequent Xylariaceae isolated; although, Daldinia eschscholtzii has also been commonly isolated. DNA technology and chemical profiling have been shown to be invaluable in the identification of xylariaceous isolates which previously could not be identified to species level or even assigned to genera in many cases. Reference is made to those isolates which produce novel compounds or those exhibiting bioactive properties. Keywords Endophytic fungi, Xylariaceae, Thailand, Novel metabolites.
Species Diversity of Plankton in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Samut Songkhram Campus
Noppadon Chamchoi, Pratheep Meewattana, Griwut Suksawang and Pitiphat Thaisri
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Abstract The study of phytoplankton and zooplankton in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Samut Songkram Campus by collecting the samples following the seasons: the cool season (December, 2012), the hot season (March, 2013) and the rainy season (June, 2013). The plankton samples were collected from 5 stations by using 70 micrometers mesh size of plankton net and examined the water quality. The results showed that, in total, there are plankton in 48 genera, 77 species which consist of 36 genera, 58 species of the phytoplankton, and 12 genera, 19 species of the zooplankton. The phytoplankton: Class Bacillariophyceae was the dominant group and the most diverse was the genus Chaetoceros (8 species). The zooplankton: Phylum Sarcomastigophora had the most species diversity and most diverse zooplankton was the genus Ceratium (5 species). The cool season was the season when the greatest species diversity of the plankton could be found and the water temperature average was 27.79 ° C. The pH average was 7.82. The dissolved oxygen average was 6.21 mg/l. The salinity average was 24 ppt. These conditions are the appropriate environment for these living aquatic organisms. Keywords Species diversity, Plankton, Samut Songkhram
GIS Application in Urban Traffic Air Pollution Exposure Study: A Research Review
Amrit Kumar, Rajeev Kumar Mishra and S. K. Singh
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Abstract This paper reports a preliminary study of the evaluation and forecast of transport-related air pollution dispersion in urban areas with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and a simulative system with graphical interface. The urban population growth, economic development, energy consumption, growing transportation demand and living standards play major role in pollution exposure in atmosphere. A lot of research has already been done to investigate the functional relationship between air quality and air pollution from transport. This study is an effort to develop a more flexible framework of model to find the exposure of the air pollution in the atmosphere. This review article describes the development of framework of different GIS inputs that help to find the exposure of vehicular pollution in megacity. Keywords Dispersion, Pollution Exposure, GIS Application, Urban Air Quality, Vehicular Emission.
Development of Animation Teaching Media on the Topic of The Property of The Father
Preedawon Kadmateekarun and Sumitra Nuanmeesri
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Abstract The objective of this research was to develop animation teaching media on the topic of The Property of the Father to teach for students to understand the concept of sufficiency. The animation was developed to evaluate the performance of a sample of 50 grade 4-5 students at Wat Don Sali School. The results were as the achievement of the students who were taught with the animation was .05 significantly and students had a high level of satisfaction with the animation. Keywords Animation, teaching media, sufficiency
   SSSTJ - Vol.1 No.1, July 2014
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Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus in Post-harvest Contaminated Vigna ungulculata Seeds
Ajay Kumar Gautam
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Abstract The present study was carried out with a specific objective to study postharvest spoilage of Lobhiya(Vigna unguiculata) seeds contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Infected seeds were collected and cultured on potato dextroseagar(PDA) media, at 25±2 °C.Aspergillus flavus isolates were primarily characterized by its morphological and microscopic characteristics. Collected fungal isolates were also screened for their afaltoxigenic nature on preliminary basis and at molecular level.For preliminary screening, 5 mm disc of fungal culture was soaked with few drops of liquid ammonia. Color change from yellow pigment to plum - red with different intensities showed the mycotoxic nature of the fungus. DNA from fungal isolates was isolated and amplified using PCR with aflatoxin specific primers, apa - 2, ver - 1 and omt-1. Amplicons of 1032 bp, 895 bp and 596 bp were obtained in most of the isolates regardless of primer set used which was useful to differentiate between mycotoxic and nontoxic isolates of A.flavus. The isolation of aflatoxigenic strains of A.flavus during post - harvest period of lobhiya seeds raise a serious concern over the quality of seeds and a threat to heath of consumers. It was concluded that Aspergillus flavus is responsible for postharvest spolilage of Lobhiya(Vigna unguiculata). Keywords Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., post-harvest spoilage, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxins.
Sustainability: an Approach in Planning to Raise the Quality of Life Through Open Space Development
Sonal Y. Khobragade
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Abstract A presentation of the notion of sustainable development through the eye of a town planner, by elucidating how open space development would change the character of the city and augment towards harmony in the socio-environmental chords of sustainable development. It is an attempt to put forward awareness about the sustainability and environmental risk to ultimately reconcile ecological, social and economic factors of society. It is an attempt to reflect on socio-environmental dimension of the open space planning by addressing urban metamorphosis. Keywords Sustainability, Urban metamorphosis, Environmental risk, Diversity, Open space development, Quality of life, People’s participation
Interactive e-Learning system for Thalassemia: a Case of University Hospital in Thailand
Phanu Waraporn
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Abstract Though most medical students are from top of the classes, it is no secret that gaining real-life work experience and advancing their careers require years of practical and hand-on experiences. To address the perceived skill and to bridge gaps, a first-hand solution is launched in the form of a prototype being developed that take a unique spin on e-Learning system with interactive content. The tool is tested with domain expert and various levels of medical students and their anonymity. The preliminary result is shown to be satisfactory for more coverage. Keywords e-Learning, Interactive Content, Prototype, Medical Studies, Anonymity
Wild Elephant Conservation Using Sound Waves to Obstruct Them from Plantations: a Case Study at Kui Buri District, Thailand
Pratheep Meewattana and Chollathorn Chamnarnkid
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Abstract A trial of the 2,300-2,800 Hz band of frequency in sound waves were made more intense in decibels (dB), similar to a firecracker or firecracker ball was made for use of the local people to dislodge and/or obstruct wild elephants from agricultural areas (pineapple plantations) within Kui Buri District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Thailand. The 3 point source was checked between 10 -50 meters, sound sources to the elephants in distances and loudness are as discussed later; firecracker balls were 151, 142, 138, 128, 119 decibels (dB), firecrackers were 99, 95, 91, 85, 72 dB, and the frequency of the sound waves (2,800 Hz) were 85, 80, 74, 70, 62 dB, respectively. The results can be analyzed through the laboratory and fundamentals of sound wave, anatomy and physiology of mammals, including comparisons to the standard sound intensities of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). The energy and pressure of firecracker ball is strong and were transferred into some auditory mechanisms and behaviors of wild elephants. As a consequence, the elephant’s auditory mechanism has been affected from the energy and pressure; at least 1 individual of wild elephant had shown sensorineural hearing loss in the case study, their behavior became more aggressive and more easily angered. Keywords Wild Elephant, Conservation, Sound Wave, Kui Buri District, Thailand
Bird Diversity in Fruit Gardens in Bang Nang Li Sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province
Nitinarth Charoenpokaraj
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Abstract This research is quantitative and qualitative explorative research. The purposes of this research was 1) to study bird species, feeding behavior, abundance and status in study area 2) to study activities in utilization of birds in the study site. The data was obtained by interviewing the owners of fruit gardens and field surveys of bird species, activities of birds in habitat utilization in three kinds of organic fruit gardens namely; lychee garden, coconut garden, and pomelo garden in Bang Nang Li Sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province from October 2012 – September 2013. The result of bird survey in 3 gardens found 31 families and 61 species of birds. 52 bird species were found the most in organic pomelo gardens. In feeding habitats, insectivorous, piscivorous, granivorous, nectrivorous birds and aquatic invertebrate feeding birds were found. Abundance level of birds in organic fruit gardens was at level 5. 23 bird species were frequently found. 43 bird species were found in November because migratory birds came to utilize the study site. According to the status of bird species, 48 resident bird species, 6 resident and 7 migrant bird species were found in organic fruit gardens. The birds’ activities in fruit gardens were feeding and nesting. Keywords Samut Songkram Province, Fruit gardens, Bird diversity.